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      澳门至尊AB视讯ZhangXiaojiLongGuoqiangOpeningtotheoutsideworldisafundamentalstatepoebasisofsummarizingthesuccessfulexperienceofthepastandadaptingourselvestoeconomicglobalizationatthetimewhenChinaisapproachingaccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)isofimportantsignificancetocarryingoutChina’,Chinaimplementedthepolicyofopeningtotheoutsideworldanddidquitewellintakingadvantageofthefavorable,’sbasicexperienceinopeningtotheoutsideworldconsistsofthefollowing:First,nancialcrisistookplaceorwhentheinternationalsituationwasinturmoil,Chinapersistedinitsfundamentalpolicyofopeningto,Chinamadefulluseof“internationalanddomesticresourcesandmarkets”,activelyparticipatedintheinternationaldivisionoflabor,,,Chinaproperlycoordinatedinstitutionalrefo,thecountry’,themarketizationdomesticeconomyandthemajorrestructuringofforeigneconomicrelationsandtradeint,Chinaadoptedtimelystrategicmeasuresforfurtheropeni,itputforththe“strategyofexpandinginternationalmarketsharebyimprovingquality”,“marketdiversification”and“strategyofbroadly-basedforeigntradeandeconomiccooperation”.Furthermore,itpracticed“all-dimensional,multi-tieredandwide-rangingopeningtotheoutsideworld”.,Chinaconsistentlymainta,,struckagainstevasionofforeprinciplesguidingChina’conomicglobalizationasthebackdrop,Chinawillbe’seconomiclifeaswellasabasicpointofdeparturewhenweanalyz’sm,,oreandtheinternationalindustrialandtechnologicaltransferbringChinawithanhistoricopportunitytound,technologicalinnova’esintheinternationalstructureofdemandsthataretakingplacearoundtheworldandthusfailtocarryoutstructuraladjustmentdomesticallyandacceptinternationalindustrialtransfer,Chinawillfindthatitwillnotonlybeunabletoupgradeitsindustrialstructure,,thechangeintheaggregatesupplyanddemandpatternofthedomesticmarketcreatedfavorableconditionsforChinatograduallyopenitsdomesticionhaveyettobecompleted,insufficientdemandhascreatedtremenfteritsaccessiontoWTOandincreasetheshareChina’apitalandimportthoseresourcesan,whetherChinacantrulyreapthebenefitsofopeningitsmarkettotheoutsideworld,relaxingtherestrictionsontheentryofforeigncapital,andfurtherlinkinguptheinternationalanddomesticmarketswillenableChinatogiveplayonawi,thepresentdomesticmarketisstillplaguedbybarriersexistingbetweendifferentdepartmentsandbetweendifferentregions,iciesandestablishaunifiedlargemarketinthecountryduringthetransitionperiodafteraccessiontoWTOwilldirectlyaffectChina’soptimizationofresourcesallocationandeconomicdevelopment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,,privateenterprisesaccountforthemajority,%ofallcompaniesinthesurvey;ifgroupedbyscale,smallfirmswithlessthan500employeesaccountforthemost,%ofthetotal;ifgroupedbyexportdestination,exportersorientedtoEurope,otherregions,US,%,%,%%,respectively;ifgroupedbyindustry,enterprisesinfood,mechanicalequipment,%,%%,,%,whichranksthetopintermsofthenumberoffirmsinthesurvey;firmsinJiangsuProvincefollownext,%.hesurveyresultsandcomparisonwiththeresultsfromthesurveysinthisspring(fortheperiodofJantoMay,2015)andlastfall(fortheperiodofJantoOct,2014),severalfeaturesinexportgrowthofthesurveyedcompaniesfortheperiodofJantoOctober,ievingincreaseinexportThesurveyresultsshowthat13%ofthefirmshaveexportgrowthfromJantoOctoberthisyear(includingonegroupwithgrowthrateof5%to19%,andanothergroupwithover20%growth,respectively);36%ofthecompaniesmaintainbasicallyunchangedgrowth,while51%seeadeclineinexports(includingonegroupwithadeclineof5%to19%,andanotherwithadeclineofover20%).Comparedwiththeprevioustwosurveys,muchmorecompaniesreportdeclinedexportsinthissurveythaninlastfallandthisspring,andmuchfewerreportexportgrowththaninlastfallandthisspring;SimilarnumberofcompanriodofJanuarytoOctober,u%medium-sizedcompaniesseeexportgrowthintheperiodofJantoOctoberof2015,whichisbithigherthanthepercentageofsmallexporters;%ofthemedium-sizedcompaniesseedeclinedexports,,muchfewersmallandmedium-sizedcompaniesseeexportgrowththanthoseinthesurveysoflastfallandthisspring;muchmoresmallandmedium-sizedcompanieshavedeclinedexportthanthoseinthesurveysoflastfallandthisspring;thenumberofsmallfirmsreportingunchangedexportisslightlylowerthanthatinlastfallandthisspring,whilethenumberofmedium-sizedfirmsreportingu,theexportsituationforthesmallandmedium-sizedcompaniesinthissurveydeteriorates,%ofthecompaniesinmetalandmetalproductindustryseeexportgrowth,apercentagelowerthanotherindustries;%ofthecompaniesinthisindustryseedeclinedexports,,muchfewerfirmsinallindustriesseeexportgrowththanlastfallandthisspring,andm,otherBRICScountriesandJapanhavearelativelygreaterstressofdeclinedexportsAsfewcompaniesexportingtoASEAN,ChinaHongKong,ChinaMacao,ChinaTaiwan,andKoreaareincludedinthissurvey,,ourfocusofcomparisonisoncompaniesexportingtoEurope,otherBRICScountries,,%,%,%ofthecompaniesexportingtoEurope,otherBRICScountriesandJapanreportrespectivelythattheyhaveanincreaseinexports,whichallarelowerthanthepercentageoffirmsexportingtotheUS;%,%and55%firmsexportingtoEurope,otherBRICScountriesandJapanreportrespectivelyadecreaseinexports,,fewerfirmsreportexportgrowthinallmarketsthanthisspring,whilemoresurveyfJantoOctoberof2015,%ofthecompaniesseeariseorasharpriseinthepricesoftheirexportproducts,bothbeinglowerthanthepercentageinlastfallandthisspring;%ofthefirmsreportstableprices,higherthanlastfallandthisspring;%ofthefirmsreportapricedecline,,ll,,intheperiodofJantoOctoberthisyear,%ofthefirmsreportahighprofitrate,whichisalowerpercentagethanlastfallandthisspring;%oftherespondentssaytheymaintaintheirprofitrateatsomewhatlowandverylowlevels,whichisasmallerpercentagethanthatinlastfallandthisspring;%ofthecompaniesreportabreak-evenperformance,%saytheysufferaloss,eyshows,%ofthecompaniesreporttheyhavea“sharprise”,a“slightrise”inexportordersintheperiodofJantoOctoberthisyear;%reporttheyhavea“slightdecline”anda“sharpdecline”,muchfewerfirmsreportanincreaseinexportorders,andmuchmorereportadecreaseinexportorders,whichshowsthedeterioratingsituationofexporters’,%,;%,,whichindicatesatoughersituationforsmallfirmsinthefuture.

      LiuShijinEconomicrestructuringinvolvesmanyissuesandthefollowingopinionsareherebyputforwardwithregardtothegoals,themainthemeandprinciplesthatnee,economicdevelopmegrowthontheonehandanddownsizesbackwardproductioncapacityontheotherhandthroughtechnologicalprogress,industrialtransformation,aswellastheinnovationofthesystemandorganization,“TenthFive-YearPlan”,itisarestructuring,whichcomesattheendoftheperiodofscarcity-inducedeconomyandanoversupplyoftraditionalindustries,verafairlylongperiodinthefuture,anumberofnewfast-growingindustriesmustbecultivatedthroughindustrialupgradingafter,itisarestructuringaimedatincreasinginternationalcompetitivenesswhenthetrendofeconom“advancesandbackingoffs,”thecomparativeadvantageofourcountryshouldbebroug,itisarestructuringaimedatpromotingtechnologicalupgradingwhentechnologicalprogresshasbeenacceleratundofrestructuring---todevelopnewandhi-techindustriessoastonarrowthetechnologicalgapwithdevelopedcountriesinsomekeyareas;totransformtraditionalindustrieswithnewandhightechnology;andtoestablishamechanismoft,itisarestructuringaimedatforminganewmechanismforstructuraladjustmentwhenmajorprogresshasbeenachievedinestablishingamechanismofasocitionstemlargelyfromthedeep-rootedcontradictionsandproblemsleftoverfromtheolentionnotonlytothestructuraladjustmentitself,,twobasicgoalsshouldbesetforthenewroundofstructuraladjustment:oneistorealizestructuraladjustmentthroughpromotingindustrialandtechnologicalupgradingaswellasincreasinginternationalcompetitiveness,soastomaintainarelativelyhighgrowthrate(presumably7-8%)overafairlylongperiodoftime(presumablyaround10years),theotheristoacceleratetransformationandconstructionofsystemsduringthereadjustment,soastoestablishanewself-adj’,ment,,(particularlythosetownshipenterprisesthatemergedinthe1980sby"departingfromfarmlandwithoutleavingthehometown"),tralandwesternareascontinuestowiden,andthe,,levels,,,clothi,transportationandotherserviceconsumptionaimedatimprovingthelivingstandardhasmetsystemandpolicybarriers,whichledtoa“consumptionfault”.Inruralareas,somekindofconsumptionc,ervicestotraditionalstate-ownedenterprises,,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesandsomefast-growinghighandnew-techenterprises,whichhaveplayedanincreasinglyimportantroleintheeconomy,,,andtheadjustmenttasksof“advancesandbackingoffs”“effectivelymobilizingsocialforcesforinvestment”roved....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.澳门塞班岛亚洲版官网,%orso,about1%,intermsofeconomicconditionandelementssupportingeconomicgrowth,areasfollows:,proactivefinancialpoliciesandstablecurrencypolicieshavebeenimplementedwithmorestressgiventochannelantate-ow,establishmentofloanguaranteefundshave,tocertainextent,,b,therecoveryofeconomiesinEastAsiaincludingJapan,thecontinuedeconomicexpansionoftheUSandthestableeconomicgrowthinEuropehavecreatedagoodexternalenvironmentforthegrowthofChina’tersandthefavorablebalanceofforeigntradewaslowerthanthatofthesameperiodoflastyear,theincreaseininternationaldemandhasplayedanobviousroleinpromotingthegrowthofChineseindustrieswithcomparativeadvantages(whicharemainlylabor-intensiveindustries).Ontheotherhand,fastgrowthintheimportofrawmaterialsandelectromechanicalequipmen,sincethebeginningofthisyear,whichincreased,fastgrowthinelectronicsindustryandtelec%.Thecomparativelyslowdevelopmentinbasicindustriess%,whichisthehighestduringtheperiodoftheEighthandtheNinth"Five-yearPlan".vidualbusinesseshavebeenformulatedinvariouslocalitiesinrecentyearsinimplementingthepolicyofthe15thCentralCommitteeofallandmedium-sizedenterprises,relaxingrestrictionsontheapprovalofexporttrading,,,GuangdongandJiangsuprovinces,whereprivateenterprisesarerelativelyconcentrated,tr(SOEs),%forstate-ownedenterprisesandstateholdingenterprises,1%%.,%,,%,ovementofexternalenvironmentarethemajorreasonsforfastergrowthininvestment,,improvementinthesupplystructure,fastergrowthofnon-stateenterprisesandtheprogressmadebystate-ownedenterprisesinresolvingdifficultiesarethemajothenewcenturyaswellasthefirstyearofthe"TenthFive-yearPlan"ucturingdec,,experienceinexpandingdemandandfightingagainstdeflati,itwasdecidedattheFifthPlenarySessionofthe15thCentralCommitteeofthePartythatthestructuralreadjustmentisthemaintheme,whichmeanstheannualeconomicpolicyandtheme,,riseineconomicgrowthandstabilityofpriceaftershrinkageforaconsiderableperiodoftime,enterprisesaremoreditionsforinvestment,,thethree-yeartargetforstate-ownedenterprisestoovercomedifficultieshasbeenattained,whichmeansbetterconditionsforstrategicreadjustmentofstateeconomicdis,constructionandcompletionofsomeinfrastructureprojectssupportedbythestatetreasuryinrecentyoundationforcontinuedexpan,withthedecreaseoftheoutputofsummergrains,’,despitetheriseoftheincomeformiddleandlow-paidpeopleinthefirsthalfoftheyear,dly....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      ByGuoJiaofeng,GaoShiji,ZhaoWenzhi,DongDazhongLiJianzhong,Rese,2015Inrecentyears,the“shalerevolution”intheUnitedStateshasresultedinasustainedincreaseofshaleoilandgasproductionandanoversupplyintheinternationaloilmarket,leadingtothesharpdropofoilpriceintheinternationalmarketsincethesecondhalfof2014,lessthan50dollarsperbarrel,,,someinternati,theytrytotackleproblemsbroughtbylowpricesandontheotherhandattachmoreimportancetoreducingcostandincreasingefficiencyofoilexplora,g(2015-2020),issuedbyChongqingMunicipalGovernmentinJanuary2015,thattheannuals,moreinterestisseeninplaceslikeSichuan,Guizhou,Shaanxi,,MinistryofLandandResourcesatestmarketinformation,scientificallyprojectthefutureproductionofshalegasinChinasoastoplaninadvanceandmakecarefulplanningforthedevelopmentofChina’,alongwiththeanalysisandin-depthstudiesofseveralinstitutions,webelievethatshalegasproductioninChinawillexceed5billioncubicmetersin2015andisexpectedtoreach30billioncubicmetersin2020,about15%edonshoreChinafromthePrecambrianperiodtotheCainozoicera,andwidelydistributedinthemainpetroliferousbasinsinthenorthandlargeareasinthesouth,theabundantorgan,ChinaNationalPetroleumCorporation(hereinafterreferredtoas“CNPC”),theStrategicResearchCenterforOilandGasResourcesofMinistryofLandandResources,theChineseAcademyofEngineering,andUSEnergyInformationAdministration(EIA),,andthedistributionofshaleresources,EIAestimatedeighteensetsofshalegasresourcesinsevenmajorpetroliferousbasinsorregionsonshoreChinain2013,,,theStrategicResearchCenterforOilandGasResourcesofMinistryofLandandResourcesorganized27researchinstitutestoassesstheshalegas,,,theChineseAcademyofEngineeringorganizedacademiciansinthefieldofoilandgasandexpertsinthreemajoroilcompaniestoestimatemarineshalegasresourcesinChinawithanalogy,,CNPCassessedshalegasresourcesinthekeyareasbas,,s,,thoughstillintheinitialstage,hasachievedmajorbreakthroughsandtherearepromisingprospectsSincestartingshalegasexplorationin2005,Chinahas,bytheendof2014,investedover20billionyuan,,,Chinahascompletedabunchofpilottestsconcerningshalegasexploration,carriedoutinitialassessmentofthepotentialsofonshoreshalegasresources,,industrialgaswasfoundinFulingJiaoshiba,Changning-WeiyuanandFushun-Yongchuanp,thefirstlarge-scalefieldwiththeproductionofhundredsofbillionscubicmetersinChina,andestablished4demonstrationareasofindustrializationdevelopmentofshalegas,obtainedover500billioncubicmetersofshalegas,(mergingintothenaturalgaspipelinenetworksurroundingtheSichuanBasinafterconnectingwiththeNa’anPipeline).In2015,ng6billioncubicmetersofshalbasicallybeenreadyAtpresent,Chinahasbasicallydevelopedthetechnologiesforselectingandevaluatinggeologicalconditionsoffavorableexplorationzones/strata,andestablishedtechnologicalmethodsandpletinghorizontalwellswithlongintervals(1500-2000meters),suchaswell-boretrajectorycontrol,cementing,drillingfluid,gasreservoirs,suchasfracturingtreatmentdesignofshalegaswells,configurationofslickwaterinvolumefracturing,massivefracturingoperation,,includingclusteringperforation,drillablebridge-plugstagedfracturing,cablepumpingbridgeplug,coiledtubingpumpingbridgeplug,completingshalegaswellgroups,anddrillingandcompletinghorizontalwellsectionswithasinglebitandscrewinonerun①.Besides,wehaveinitiallyformedsupportingequipmentandtechnicalprocessesforshal…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.①Atpresent,itisfeasibletodeployan,thereare6-10horizontalwells,whicharedrilledandcompletedwithstandardizedequipmentandservicesinthewayoftheproductionorassemblyline.ZhangWenkui  sandthestateholdingcompaniesisnecessitatedbyvariousfactorsFirst,theoverlyextensivedistributionofthestate-ownedcapitalandtheholdingpositionofthestate-ownedcapitalinmostmajorenterprisesinvariousindustrieshaveresultedinaseriesofproblems,nthe"StrategicRestructuringofState-OwnedEnterprises(SOEs)",theverylimitedstate-ownedcapitalatthepresentisdifficulttosupportthecolossalstate-ownedeconomicsectorsandhasbeendistributedtoasmanyashundredsofthousandsofstate-ownedenterpriseslike"spreadingpepperpowder",,,000state-ownedenterprisesthathavecompletedcorporatetransformation,%amongtheseenterprises,%ofthetotal,%,%,%%.Theexcessivelyextensivelayoutofthestate-ownedeconomyandtheexcessivelylargeproportionofthestateequityhavemadeitd,562incorporatedcentralandprovinciallevelenterprises,t%,erimentontheestablishmentofmoderncorporatesystem,theirasset-liabilityratiowasstillashighas65%afterfouryearsofhardefforts,%es,thedeclineofasset-liabilityratioofthestate-ownedenterprisesbyeveryonepercentwillrequireaninputofRMB¥,weshouldcombinetheeffortsofincreasingassetsandreducingdebtswiththestrategicrestructuringofthestate-ownedeconomicsectorsandtransferthestate-ownedequitysharestothepublicandcorporateentitiessoastoutilizetherelativelyabundantsoci,Chinasreformisatacriticalstage,,liquidatingandregroupingthebadassetsofthebankingsystem,makingupthedeficiencyofthesocialsecurityfundandprovidingtheminimumlivingsec,thebalanceoftheChinesegovernmentdebtshasreachedaconsiderablyhighleveland,tdebtsoftheenterprisesormakeupthecapitalfundofthestate-ownedenterprisesthathavetobemaintainedThesefundswillnotonlyhelpimprovetheeconomicstructure,strengthenthekeyareasandrevitali,thefactthatthestateequitymonopolizesorconstitutestheoverwhelmingmajorityofthesharesofacompanyhasbecomeaseriousobstacletotheestabmandisestablishedondaymanagementrightoftheirenterprisesontheirbehalfandatthesametimeengagethedirectorstoexercisetheregularwh,theexcessiveconcentrationofthestateequityinamannerthatthepowersandfunctionsoftheownersareexercisedbytheadministrativeauthoritiesisevenmorelikelytoleadtoasituationinwhichtheshareholdersinterfereintheday-to-daydecision-makingorthecompanyis"controlledbyinsiders".Bothcasesaredetr,thephenomenonthatthestateequitymonopolizesorconstitutestheoverwhelmingmajorityofthesharesofthestate-ownedenterprisesthathavebeenincorporatedisverycommon,andmostoftheenterprisesconductingexperimentwithmoderncorpo%ofthe750companieslistedonthestockexchanges,thelargestshareholder(normallytheholderofstateshares)possessesequityfivetimesthatheldbythesecondlargestshareholder(normallytheholderofcorporateshares).Thisisanindicationthattheproblemofthelistedco,onepracticalandfeasiblemethodistoestablish,bysellingpartofthestateequityandintroducingnon-stateshareholdersthathavecloserinterestrelations,amechanismbywhichtheshareholders,…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.澳门至尊AB视讯

      澳门至尊AB视讯Notes:(1),(3),(2),(5)and(7)representpercentagevs.(1);(4),(6)and(8)representproportionvs.(2).Datasources:STATEMENTOFBALANCEOFPAYMENTSbySAFEDuringthe1982-1999period,foreigncapitalreceiptsandpayments(balance),,%,China’scapitalsinflowisinnetterms,andthehugesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpay,FDIinChinarepresentsthelargestelementforitssurplus,,accountingfor81%,FDIisnotonlythegreatestelementforthesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsbutalsothebaseforasustainedsurplusofFDIforalongtime,contributingagreatdealtothegeneralsurplusofChina,anetincreaseisshowninChinasoverseasissuanceofequitysecuritiesandbonds,indi,duringthe1982-1999periodthenetin,%ofthesurplusofforeigncapitals,an,however,adeficitwasrecordedduringthe1996-1999period,mainlyduetoadrasticfallinthesurplusofliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentinthatperiod,,therefore,thatliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentasonesourceofforeigncapitalhavealimitedstimulativeroleinachievi,%ofthebalanceofallforeigncapitalreceiptsandpayments,%ofthetotalsurplusinthebalanceofcapitalreceiptsandpayments,(-),however,,thesurplusofotherinv%ofthatofforeigncapitalsandbeingoneofthethreegr,anditspercentageinthesurplusofforeigncapitalsreducedto45%.Andduringthe1996-1999periodthesurplusofliabilitiesismuchsmallerthanthesurplusofassetsinsize,withitspercentageinthebalanceofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsfallingto5-6%.Thatmeans,duringtheabove-mentionedtwoperiods,theroleofo,becauseotherinvestmentasaformofintroducingforeigncapitalisusuallysmallerthantheincreaseofassetsinsize,,otherinvestmentisanuncertainfactoraffectingthebalanceofforeigncapitalsandcapitalaccountswhenforeigncapitals(mainlytrade-relatedcredits)areutilizedinsuchform,anditsdrasticdecreaseintimesofuncertaineconomicgrowthmorethanoftengivesrisetoadeficitinotherinvestmentreceiptsandpaymentsandeveninthebalanceofcapitalaccounts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,dernizationThereis,publicpolicyevaluationisaseriesofappraisalandjudgmentactivitiesofpolicysystem,process,qualityand,makepublicpolicymorescientificandpractical,,withthedevelopmentofmodernscientificmethods,publicpo,somedevelopedcountriesandinternationalorganizationsbegantoimplementpublicpolicyevaluationinabroadrange,,,,thereh(atconstant2005prices),theglobaltotaleconomicoutputreached$,anditincreasedto$,representingagrowthofover60%,%intheGDPin1990,%’%initsGDPin1990,whilein2013,%.Allthesechangesindic,withtheincreasinglycomplicatedeconomicdivisionoflaborandsocialformation,,socialconstruction,regionalrural-urbancoordinateddevelopment,environmentalgovernance,newpolicychallengesemergesuccessivelylikeclimatechange,internetcrimes,terrorism,culturalconfrontation,,whenmakingpublicpolicy,itisnecessarytoconsidermorecomplicatedfactors,,historical,culturalandtraditionalfactorsshouldbetakenintoconsideration,whilepracticalci,publicpolicycannotbemademere,effective,,publicpol,,administrativedepartmentsalwayshavenesso,itisnecessarytoincludepolicyevaluationduringtheimplementation,’,allparticipantsengagedingovernancewillhaveopportunitiestofullyexpresstheirviews,communicateandcoordinateeffectivelysoastobalancedifferentinterests,,policyevaluationcanalsoimprovetheabilityuationThediversityandvarietyofpublicpolicyaswellasthecomplexityoftheinterestsinvolve,legislativeandjudicialorgans,butalsoallsortsofthinktanks,socialorganizationsandmassmedia,,governmentthinktanks,asakindofspecialinstitutions,boastingmanyadvantages,,becauseofitsclosenesstodecisionmakersandalsoindependencefromothergovernmentaldepartments,governmentthinktankshavetheadv,governmentthinktankscanbetterunderstandtheintentsandprocessofpolicymaking,especiallyunderstandt,governmentthinktanksneithermakethepolicy,ntorcomprehensiveadministrativedepartments,governmentthinktanksarenotonlyabletobedetachedfrompolicymakingandimplementation,,entrustedbythestate,fundedbythepublicfinance,evaluationdonebygovernmentth,policyevaluationrequirescomplicatedprocessofanalysis,studyandevaluation,,,in2014,NewYorkTimespublishedaseriesofreportsbyBrooksWilliams,anAmericanscholar,ington,DCoftheUS,includingBrookingsInstitution,CenterforStrategicandInternationalStudies,AtlanticCouncil,acceptedover$,governmentthinktanks,entrustedbythestate,unrelatedwiththeevaluatedprojectsintermsofinterest,andstablyfundedbythepublicfinance,ntheobjectivityofevaluation.

      ,Chinahasmadesignificantprogresstowardsfinancialsectorderegulationvialiberalizingbanklendingrates,expandingtheQFIIquota,increasingtheflexibilityoftheexchangerate,,includingbanklendingratesandexchangerates,arenowclosermarketequilibriums,andmarketm,Chinatructuralimbalancesduetooverregulations,Chinaneedsto:1)removecontrolsondepositrates;2)furtherincreasetheRMBsexchangerateflexibility;3)furtheropenupitscapitalaccount;and4)liberalizemarketaccesstothefinancialindustrybyremovingexcessiveandhavebeenwrittenintothethirdplenums"Decision",themostchallengingquestionishowtodesignthespecificreformprogramstbeonhighalertincludethefollowing,manyofwhichreflectlegacyissuesoftheoldsystem:,Chinaslocalgovernmentdebthasrisenquicklyinrecentyearstoabout32%,however,isthematuritymismatchbetweenlocalgovernmentliabilities(mostlyintheformofloansandtrustloans),thematurityofatypicalbankloanortrustloanis2-3years,whiletheprojectcashflowswillonlhtening,changeinprudentialregulationsonbanksandtrustcompanies,aswellasdeteriorationininvestorsentimentforwealthmanagementproducts(WMPs).InWesterncountries,theaveragematurityoflocalgovernmentdebtis7-10years,whichismuchclo,therewerenofailuresofbanksandtrustcompanies,andtherewereveryfewdefaultsofhighlyrisky(withriskssimilartojunkbondsinwesterncountries),trustcompaniesandWMPsareexceptionallystrong,butbecausemostofthesepoliticalsystemthatpenalieesofallbanks,trustcompaniesandWMPsleadtoincorrectpricingofcreditproductsissuedbysomeveryriskyborrowers,,,htsteptowardscorrectingthemispricing,,Chinasinterbankratesbecameveryvol,ahighvolatilityofinterestratestendstoconfusefinancialmarketparticipantsandcompaniesastowhatthemonetarypolicyintentionis,,asuddenspikeininterbankratescouldexacerbatethedurationriskf:theyhavedotowiththelackofcapacityinforecastingliquidity,lackofinter-governmentalcollaboration,theloan-to-depositratio,imprudentliquiditymanagementbybanks,shadowbankingactivities,aswellast,cross-bordercapitalflowsremainmanageableasformalcontrolsonQFIIandQDIIquotasremain,,assoonasthecapitalaccountisopen(,theQFIIandQDIIsystemsareabolished),large-scalecapitalinflowsand/oroutflowscouldleadtoexcessivevolatilityoftheexchangerate,destabilizethefinancialsystems,anddamagetherealeco"managedfloatingexchangerateregime",thevolatilityoftheRMB//7thatofMalaysianRinggit,1/13thatofKoreanwon,and1/,massiveinflowscouldresultifChinasbondmarketisopenedtoglobalinvestorsgiventhe2-3%interestratedifferentialbetweenChina)needtomovetowardsamoreliberalizationfinancialsystemsothattoimproveefficiency,and2)theneedtocontainanddefusetheabovementionedfinancialrisks,Chinats,alongwiththeplanedreformssuchasdepositratederegulationandcapitalaccountliberalization:,webelievethatakeyriskfacingthefinancialsystemistheexcessiverelianceoflocalgket,whichwillgraduallyreplaceloansandtrustloans,localgovernmentbondswithlongermaturitiesshouldaccountformorethan50%ofthefinancingsourcesforlocalgovernmentcapex(itisonly10%inChina).Tostartthereformprogram,Chinashouldmodifyitsbudgetlawtoallowindependentissuanceoflocalgovernmentbonds,establishacrediblecreditratingsystemforlocalgovernmentbonds,requirelocalgovernmentstopublishtheirbalancesheetsandmedium-termfinancialprojections,andestablishalegalframeworktoregulatetheapprovalprocedurebylocalpeople"manageddefaults".InaneconomyasbigasChina,afewfailuresofsmallbanksandafewdozendefaultsbyjunkbonds(orWMPs)peryearshouldbenormaland,indeed,,webelievethatregulatorsshouldpermitafewmoredefaultsofnon-standardWMPsintheremainderofthisyear,withsomemodestincreasesinthehaircut(fromthe7%haircutfortheCCTproduct)to,,10-20%.Theseeventsof"manageddefaults"maypotentiallypushupthefundingcostsby100-200bpsforhighlyriskyborrowers,buttheyarenecessaryforcontainingtheexcessiveborrowingviathetrustsector–bypricingoutsomeworstborrowers--andreducingsystemicrisks.WangYuanLiZhaoxi InaccordancewiththedecisionoftheBraPlenarySessionofthe14thPartyCongressontheestablishmentofmodernenterprisesystems,mostofChinaslargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedintocompaniessince1994inkeepingwiththeprovisionsoftheCompanyLawofthePeople,themanagementande,theoperatingef,enterprises,,theStateCouncildispatchedspeci,extravagantspendingofpublicfunds,delinquencydebtsandfundtra,itisnouseegovernancestructureOnestrikingfeatureof,asamodernenterprisehasawidescopeofbusinessanditsinternalstructureiscomplex,itwouldbeimpossiblefortheenterpr,astheoperationsofanyenterprisearesubjecttotheconstraintofthepropertyrights,itwouldalsobeimpossiblefortheenterprisetooperatewelliftheownersoftheenterprisespropertyrightslosetheirfinalcontrolovertheenterpriseandallowthemanagerstopursuetheirownintereststh,thecoreofamodernenterprisesystemisthecorporategovernancestructure,whetheracompanycanoperatewelldependsfirstofallo,thefollowingproblemsthatseriouslyaffecttheestablishmentandoperationofthecorporategovernancestructureoccurredinmanyChinesestate-ownedenterpriseswhentheyweretransformedintocompanies:First,abatchofso-called"plaque-changecompanies"citiesinthecourseofbeingtransformedintocompanies,thatwasinfactaprocessof"plaguechange"fortfereinthedecision-makingoftheenterprisesintheareasofpersonnel,finance,materialssupply,tofmodernenterprisesystemswereactuallyturnedintothesolelystate-ownedcompan,frompersonnelappointmentandinvestmentplanningtotheinter-enterprisemergersandreorganizations,stillhavetobemadeaccordin,theinternaldecision-makingbodiesoftheenterprisesareoverlappedandthereareseveralleadingbodiestoissueseparateorders,whichmakesc,widescopeofbusiness,,itisnecessarytoestablishamanagementsystemthattakesthewage-earningseniormanagersasitscoreandtheChiefExecutiveOfficer(CEO)asitsleader,exercisingcentralizedandunifiedleadershipoverthecompany-wideproductionandoperating,itsdecision-makingbodiesincludethe"oldthreehuis"(thepartycommittee,thetradeunionandtheemployeescongress)andthe"threenewhuis"(thegeneralmeetingofshareholders,theboardofdirectorsandthesupervisoryboard),theyarecharacterizedas"threehearts"(whichmeanstakingthefactorydirectorasthecenterandthepartycommitteeasthecoreandrelyingwholeheartedlyontheworkingclass)and"twominds"(whichmeansthepowersandresponsibilitiesarenotclearlydefined).Ifthesepowerorgansareledbydifferentpeople,,everybodytriestograbdecision-makingpowers;whensomeproblemsemerge,accordingtoChinasCompanyLaw,hisday-to-dayoperatingdecision-makingfacesinterferencefrommanysourcesandit,ifallthesepositionsareassumedconcurrentlybyonesameperson,thebehaviorsofthegeneralmanagerwillbefreeofthecontroloftheownersandotherstakeholdersanditisverylikelyforasituationtoemerge,inwhich"insiderscontrol"and"everythingisdoneinhisownway".Third,intheenterprisesthatenjoyafairlyhighdegreeofautonomy,thephenomenonthat"thecontrolofinsidershasgoneoutofcontrol",althoughtheseniormanagersenjoyahighdegreeofautonomywithintheirscopeofauthority,theiroperatingactivitiesaresubjecttotheoverallsupervisionoftheshareholdersandotherstakeholdersthroughtheboardsofdirectors,andreceive,decadesofreformin"decentralizingpowersandofferinginterestconcessions"hasmadepeoplewidelybelievethatthehighestprincipleofreformistogivethe"enterprises"(actuallytheirmanagers),the"authorizedmanagementofthestate-ownedassets",thegentransfoinalcontrolrightoftheenterprisesintheircapacityas"representativesofthejuridicalpersons".Infact,theyaremanagingthesestate-ownedassetswithfullpowersandwithoutinternalorexternalsupervision,hencethephenomenonthat"theinsiderscontrolhasgoneoutofcontrol".ThedecisionoftheStateCounciltodispatchspecialinspectorstoauditthesolelystate-ownedenterprisesdersinthecorporategovernancestructurehavenotbeenclearlydefinedandasthereisnoregularsupervisionoverthecorporateoperations,eventheseverepunishmentsmetedouttothoseresponsibleaftertheexternalauditbythespecialinspectorsareoftenproventobetoolatetorecoverthelosses.澳门至尊AB视讯

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